PSMA radioligand therapy for solid tumors other than prostate cancer: background, opportunities, challenges, and first clinical reports

Journal: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Year of publication: 2021
Page: 48(13):4350-4368

M.J.M. Uijen, Y.H.W. Derks, R.I.J. Merkx, M.G.M. Schilham, J. Roosen, B.M. Privé, S.A.M. van Lith, C.M.L. van Herpen, M. Gotthardt, S. Heskamp, W.A.M. van Gemert & J. Nagarajah

 In the past decade, a growing body of literature has reported promising results for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radionuclide imaging and therapy in prostate cancer. First clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA radioligand therapy (PSMA-RLT) demonstrated favorable results in prostate cancer patients. [177Lu]Lu-PSMA is generally well tolerated due to its limited side effects. While PSMA is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer cells, varying degrees of PSMA expression have been reported in other malignancies as well, particularly in the tumor-associated neovasculature. Hence, it is anticipated that PSMA-RLT could be explored for other solid cancers. Here, we describe the current knowledge of PSMA expression in other solid cancers and define a perspective towards broader clinical implementation of PSMA-RLT. This review focuses specifically on salivary gland cancer, glioblastoma, thyroid cancer, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, and breast cancer. An overview of the (pre)clinical data on PSMA immunohistochemistry and PSMA PET/CT imaging is provided and summarized. Furthermore, the first clinical reports of non-prostate cancer patients treated with PSMA-RLT are described.