S. Patel, J.J. Rongen, J.J. Fütterer, A. Boltyenkov & M.M. Rovers
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance (AS) has limitations that include missing high-risk tumors and performing unnecessary biopsies. The use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in AS may overcome these limitations, but its cost-effectiveness remains uncertain.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of three AS strategies: AS with transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUSGB), AS with mpMRI and MRI ultrasound-guided biopsy (MR-TRUSGB), and AS with mpMRI without biopsies.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A Markov cohort model for men with low-risk prostate cancer was developed to assess the three strategies. Input data were derived from meta-analysis, other published literature, and national cost reports. A health care perspective was used for a European setting.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Health care costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were modeled over a lifetime horizon. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to address uncertainty in model parameters.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In the base case analysis, expected mean costs per man screened were €5150 for TRUSGB, €5994 for mpMRI without biopsy, and €4848 for mpMRI with biopsy. Corresponding QALYs were higher for mpMRI with biopsy compared to TRUSGB (18.67 vs 18.66) and lower for mpMRI without biopsy compared to TRUSGB (18.27 vs 18.66). Owing to lower costs and higher effects, the mpMRI with biopsy strategy was cost-effective compared to the TRUSGB strategy.
CONCLUSION: mpMRI with MR-TRUSGB appears to be the most cost-effective AS strategy for men with low-risk prostate cancer.
PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared costs and quality of life for the standard active surveillance (AS) program for men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer to a monitoring program comprising multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) with and without biopsies. Our results suggest that an AS strategy using mpMRI with biopsy improves quality of life and costs decrease. An AS strategy using mpMRI without biopsy was not beneficial compared to the standard program.